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2019/09/24 第432期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份直接訂閱

Stendhal Syndrome: The Power of Art  佛羅倫斯限定!司湯達症候群
by Bruce E. Bagnell


  Art occurs in many forms: music, dance, painting, architecture, sculpture, cinema, and literature, among others. Works of art can make people feel moved, even to the point of tears. In the case of Stendhal syndrome, however, this feeling is so intense that a person can experience a rapid heartbeat, dizziness, sweating, hallucinations, or fainting. It may even require hospitalization. In the Italian city of Florence, numerous visitors viewing the abundant Renaissance art there have experienced this and have required medical attention. Though not professionally recognized, this condition—now referred to as Stendhal syndrome—does exist.
  While great art is found in every civilization, Florence has been especially blessed. A small city with a compact historical center, it is internationally esteemed for its astounding concentration of Renaissance art. Florence in the 15th and 16th centuries was a magnet for the talent of many geniuses: artists, scientists, and authors were welcomed here. Some of the greatest Western works of art can be found in Florence, such as the statue of David by Michelangelo, The Birth of Venus by Botticelli, and the frescoes by Giotto in the Basilica of Santa Croce. In addition, Leonardo da Vinci left works here. Galileo Galilei and Niccolo Machiavelli are buried here. Florence was a lighthouse of culture and enlightenment in a* Europe still recovering from the Middle Ages.
  The syndrome is named after Stendhal, a French author who visited Florence in 1817. He described his experience of being overwhelmed by the historic and artistic power of the city in one of his books. Though the term Stendhal syndrome was not coined until 1979 by Italian psychiatrist Graziella Magherini, the illness had already had a long history. Patients usually recover within days of their attacks without any treatment other than rest and quiet. For them, the cost of viewing the power and beauty of Florence is a brief trip to a hospital.
*此處的 Europe 前方加上 a 為特殊用法,表「不同時期」的歐洲,這裡指的是中世紀的歐洲。
1. Which of the following topics is NOT mentioned in the passage?
(A) Some of the creative geniuses who worked in Florence.
(B) The role Florence played during the Renaissance.
(C) The role Florence plays in Stendhal syndrome.
(D) A description of modern art in Florence.
2. What does the phrase "not professionally recognized" in the first paragraph most nearly mean?
(A) Not officially accepted.
(B) Only found in Florence.
(C) Not similar to any other illness.
(D) Diagnosed only by professionals.
3. Which of the following descriptions of Florence in the Renaissance is the most accurate?
(A) It was the capital and largest city in Italy.
(B) It was a center for enlightened thought and works.
(C) It built more churches and museums than any other city.
(D) It became famous for the occurrence of Stendhal syndrome.
4. Which of the following is true about Stendhal syndrome, according to the passage?
(A) It occurs only in geniuses in science and art.
(B) Though it exists, it is rarely very harmful.
(C) It was first named in the 15th century.
(D) It is no longer found in the city of Florence.

architecture n. 建築(不可數)
sculpture n. 雕刻(品)
cinema n. 電影(業)
literature n. 文學
dizziness n. 暈眩,頭昏
 dizzy a. 頭暈目眩的
hallucination n. 幻覺
hospitalization n. 住院治療
 hospitalize vt. 使住院治療(常用被動語態)
Renaissance n. 文藝復興(時期)
 the Renaissance  文藝復興時期
civilization n. 文明(不可數)
concentration n. 集中
magnet n. 磁鐵
genius n. 天才(可數);天分(不可數)
fresco n. 濕壁畫(是一種十分耐久的壁飾繪畫,泛指在鋪上灰泥的牆壁及天花板上繪畫的畫作,操作困難,今已罕見)
enlightenment n. 啟蒙,啟示
 enlightened a. 開明的
psychiatrist n. 精神科醫師

1. be referred to as...  被稱為……
refer vt. & vi.(把……)稱為
• New York City is often referred to as the Big Apple.

2. recover from...  自……復原
• It took Matthew several years to recover from his serious illness.

3. be overwhelmed by...  
overwhelm vt. 使招架不住;淹沒(常用被動語態)
• Gina was overwhelmed by the heavy workload at her new job.

4. other than...  除了……以外
= except (for)...
• Everyone other than Kent agreed to this proposal.

1. syndrome n. 症候群;綜合症狀
• AIDS is short for acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

2. intense a. 劇烈的;激烈的
• No one could get near the burning house because of the intense heat.

3. abundant a. 豐富的,大量的
• In this company, you will have abundant opportunities for promotion.

4. compact a. 密實的;小型的
• Although it's a compact apartment, it has everything we need.

5. esteem vt. 尊敬,敬重
• Molly's work is highly esteemed by all her colleagues.

6. astounding a. 驚人的
• The poor family received an astounding amount of support after their story made the news.

7. coin vt. 創造/杜撰(新詞等)
• Tim Berners-Lee coined the term World Wide Web in 1990.
提姆•伯納斯-李在 1990 年創出網際網路一詞。

8. diagnose vt. 診斷
be diagnosed with + 疾病  被診斷出患有某疾病
• Abel was diagnosed with liver cancer after his annual physical checkup.

9. occurrence n. 出現,發生(不可數);發生的事件(可數)
a normal / frequent / common / rare occurrence
• The occurrence of stomachaches is often linked with stress.
• Flooding is a common occurrence in this area.

10. rarely adv. 很少,鮮少
• Hank rarely exercises, so he is getting fatter.

be named after...  以……的名字命名
• Betty was named after her mother's best friend.
以下介紹 name 作動詞和名詞的其他用法:
a. you name it  凡是你說得出的
• Alan has tried every diet—you name it, he's been on it.
艾倫嘗試過各種節食方法 ── 只要你說得出的,他都嘗試過。
b. call sb names  辱罵某人
• Tom tried to hit me when I called him names, but I dodged the blow.
*dodge vt. 閃避
c. make a name for oneself  為自己打響名號
• Over the past two years, Willy tried hard to make a name for himself.
d. by the name of...  名叫……
• Do you know a woman by the name of Rachel Nichols?
e. in the name of sb  
= in sb's name
• The house is in my wife's name.

Though not professionally recognized, this condition—now referred to as Stendhal syndrome—does exist.
Though the term Stendhal syndrome was not coined until 1979..., the illness had already had a long history.
介紹 though 的用法
※ though 通常作副詞連接詞用,譯成「雖然」,即等於 although,之後置主詞及動詞形成副詞子句並修飾主要子句,兩子句中以逗點相隔(如上面第二句用法);副詞子句亦可置於主要子句之後,此時兩子句間則不須用逗點。
Though the clock is old, it is still accurate.
= The clock is still accurate though it is old.
※ 由於 though / although 與 but 均為連接詞,因此不能並存,否則造成雙重連接的錯誤句構。換言之,使用 though / although 就不可再使用 but,反之亦然。
Though Tim and Matt are twins, they have nothing in common.
※ though / although 引導副詞子句時,若此副詞子句中的主詞與主要子句中的主詞相同,且主詞後為「be 動詞 + N/Adj./p.p.」時,則此副詞子句亦可化簡為分詞片語(如上面第一句用法)。其化簡原則為:刪除副詞子句的主詞後,其後 be 動詞變成現在分詞 being 後再予以省略。
Though divorced, Anna and David still remain friends.
※ though 除可作副詞連接詞外,亦可作連接性副詞,表「不過;但是」,等於 however。所謂連接性副詞是指具有連接詞意味,卻又無法當連接詞的副詞。使用時可置於句尾,其前加逗點,或置於句中作插入語,前後以逗點相隔。而 however 使用時,則可置於句首,其後加逗點,或置於句中作插入語,前後以逗點相隔,但很少置於句尾使用。
• I really like going to the hot springs in Yangmingshan. It's too far, though.
• Lisa is nice. I, however, don't like her.


  這個症候群是以司湯達來命名的,他是一位曾於 1817 年造訪佛羅倫斯的法國作家。他在他的其中一本書中敘述自己被這座城市的歷史和藝術力量征服的經歷。雖然司湯達症候群一詞直到 1979 年才被義大利精神病醫師格拉齊拉.馬格里尼創造出來,但這種疾病已有很長的一段歷史。患者除了休息靜養之外不需做任何治療,通常就能在發作後幾天內復原。對他們來說,欣賞佛羅倫斯力量和美麗的代價是短暫地去醫院走一趟。
1. 本文未提及以下哪個主題?
(A) 一些在佛羅倫斯工作過的創意天才。
(B) 佛羅倫斯在文藝復興時期扮演的角色。
(C) 佛羅倫斯在司湯達症候群中扮演的角色。
(D) 佛羅倫斯現代藝術的描述。
2. 第一段中的 "not professionally recognized" 最接近的意思為何?
(A) 未被正式接受。
(B) 只能在佛羅倫斯找到。
(C) 不像任何其他疾病。
(D) 僅專業人士能診斷。
3. 對於文藝復興時期佛羅倫斯的敘述,下列哪一個最精準?
(A) 它是義大利的首都和最大城市。
(B) 它是開明思想和作品的中心。
(C) 它建造了比任何其他城市更多的教堂和博物館。
(D) 它因司湯達症候群的出現而變得知名。
4. 根據本文,下列哪一項關於司湯達症候群的敘述是正確的?
(A) 它只發生在科學及藝術天才身上。
(B) 雖然它存在,卻很少有害。
(C) 它是在十五世紀被首度命名的。
(D) 它不再於佛羅倫斯市發生過。
1. D 2. A 3. B 4. B


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