Art occurs in many forms: music, dance, painting, architecture◆, sculpture◆, cinema◆, and literature◆, among others. Works of art can make people feel moved, even to the point of tears. In the case of Stendhal syndrome, however, this feeling is so intense that a person can experience a rapid heartbeat, dizziness◆, sweating, hallucinations◆, or fainting. It may even require hospitalization◆. In the Italian city of Florence, numerous visitors viewing the abundant Renaissance◆ art there have experienced this and have required medical attention. Though not professionally recognized, this condition—now referred to as Stendhal syndrome—does exist.
While great art is found in every civilization◆, Florence has been especially blessed. A small city with a compact historical center, it is internationally esteemed for its astounding concentration◆ of Renaissance art. Florence in the 15th and 16th centuries was a magnet◆ for the talent of many geniuses◆: artists, scientists, and authors were welcomed here. Some of the greatest Western works of art can be found in Florence, such as the statue of David by Michelangelo, The Birth of Venus by Botticelli, and the frescoes by Giotto in the Basilica of Santa Croce. In addition, Leonardo da Vinci left works here. Galileo Galilei and Niccolo Machiavelli are buried here. Florence was a lighthouse of culture and enlightenment◆ in a* Europe still recovering from the Middle Ages.
The syndrome is named after Stendhal, a French author who visited Florence in 1817. He described his experience of being overwhelmed by the historic and artistic power of the city in one of his books. Though the term Stendhal syndrome was not coined until 1979 by Italian psychiatrist◆ Graziella Magherini, the illness had already had a long history. Patients usually recover within days of their attacks without any treatment other than rest and quiet. For them, the cost of viewing the power and beauty of Florence is a brief trip to a hospital.
＊此處的 Europe 前方加上 a 為特殊用法，表「不同時期」的歐洲，這裡指的是中世紀的歐洲。
1. Which of the following topics is NOT mentioned in the passage?
(A) Some of the creative geniuses who worked in Florence.
(B) The role Florence played during the Renaissance.
(C) The role Florence plays in Stendhal syndrome.
(D) A description of modern art in Florence.
2. What does the phrase "not professionally recognized" in the first paragraph most nearly mean?
(A) Not officially accepted.
(B) Only found in Florence.
(C) Not similar to any other illness.
(D) Diagnosed only by professionals.
3. Which of the following descriptions of Florence in the Renaissance is the most accurate?
(A) It was the capital and largest city in Italy.
(B) It was a center for enlightened thought and works.
(C) It built more churches and museums than any other city.
(D) It became famous for the occurrence of Stendhal syndrome.
4. Which of the following is true about Stendhal syndrome, according to the passage?
(A) It occurs only in geniuses in science and art.
(B) Though it exists, it is rarely very harmful.
(C) It was first named in the 15th century.
(D) It is no longer found in the city of Florence.