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2020/05/19 第462期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份直接訂閱

Can Music Affect Your Dining Experience? 「音樂」影響你的食物選擇
by Sean Gale



  Most people enjoy hearing a bit of background music while eating at home, or while dining out at their favorite restaurants. Recent studies have shown that the style and volume of music can have an observable effect on our food choices. __1__
  One study—the first of its kind—was led by Dipayan Biswas of the University of South Florida’s Muma College of Business. In his research, Biswas exposed diners in a Swedish café to the same looped playlist of music, but at volumes of 50 decibels on some days and 70 decibels on others. __2__ In comparison, the diners who listened to tunes at lower decibels made healthier choices. Biswas attributed the results to humans’ general need to seek out comfort when they were stressed or overstimulated. To further confirm his hypothesis, a similar study was repeated, this time in Swedish grocery stores. The results were identical to the first. __3__
  Another study that examined this phenomenon was conducted by researchers at the University of Oxford. The team looked at whether or not loud, fast music might increase the perceived spiciness of dishes. __4__ Not surprisingly, participants who listened to music containing fast drumbeats and high-pitched sounds reported that food was spicier and had more intense flavors by a factor of up to 10%. The researchers called the bizarre phenomenon “sonic seasoning.” __5__ It’s no wonder that such music is often played by restaurants that will be serving up spicy foods for their diners.
(A) Among the genres that had the strongest effect were traditional Indian and Brazilian music.
(B) Certain tunes and melodies can even impact our perception of food when we are eating it.
(C) When the music was too loud, the diners became restless and failed to concentrate on the menu.
(D) The louder the music, the more cookies, chips, and sugary drinks shoppers ended up adding to their carts.
(E) On days the volume was cranked to 70 decibels, patrons ended up ordering less healthy, higher-calorie foods.
(F) A group of 180 volunteers were asked to sample spicy dishes while listening to either white noise or up-tempo tunes.


volume n. 音量
loop vt. 使(歌曲)循環播放(本文為過去分詞作形容詞用)
playlist n. 歌曲播放清單/列表
decibel n. 分貝
hypothesis n.
假設(複數形為 hypotheses)
spiciness n. 辛辣
participant n. 參與者,參加者
drumbeat n. 鼓聲
high-pitched a. 聲調很高的
sonic a. 聲音的
seasoning n. 調味品,佐料
 season vt. 給……調味

1. 第一題空格應選 (B)
a. 本空格在測試對段落語意發展的掌握。空格前一句提到,最近有研究顯示,音樂的風格和音量對我們的食物選擇可能有明顯的影響,可推測空格應是對此研究的進一步說明。
b. 選項 (B) 表示,某些曲調和旋律甚至會影響我們在進食時對食物的感知,語意連貫,且選項中的 Certain tunes and melodies(某些曲調和旋律)與前一句的 the style of music(音樂的風格)互相呼應,可知答案應選 (B)。
a. impact vt. 影響,衝擊
• Hurricane Katrina impacted the entire economy of the United States.
b. perception n. 感知,感覺
• The drug can alter your perception, attention, and balance.

2. 第二題空格應選 (E)
a. 本空格在測試對段落語意連貫性的掌握。空格前一句提到,比斯瓦斯在其研究中讓食客聽相同的循環播放歌單,其中幾天的音量是五十分貝,其他天則是七十分貝;而空格後一句指出,相較之下,聽較低分貝音樂的食客則選擇比較健康的餐點,可推測空格應與聽較高分貝音樂的受試者對食物的選擇有關。
b. 選項 (E) 表示,在音量調高至七十分貝的那幾天,顧客最後點了較不健康且熱量較高的食物,語意連貫且符合推測,可知答案應選 (E)。
a. crank vt.(轉動曲柄以)調整(音量)
crank up / down...  將……(音量)調大/調小
• Lucy cranked up the song on the car radio and sang along loudly.
b. patron n. 顧客
c. end up V-ing  最後/結果/到頭來……
• The gambler ended up losing everything.
d. calorie n. 卡路里

3. 第三題空格應選 (D)
a. 本空格在測試對段落語意發展的掌握。空格前提到,為了進一步證實比斯瓦斯的假設,在瑞典的雜貨店又進行了一項類似的研究,其結果都與比斯瓦斯的研究相同,可推測空格應與在雜貨店中進行的實驗結果有關,並且證實其前所說人類在受到壓力或過度刺激時會尋求慰藉的假設。
b. 選項 (D) 表示,音樂越大聲,購物者最後放到購物車中的餅乾、薯片和含糖飲料就越多,語意連貫且符合推測,可知答案應選 (D)。
a. the + 比較級形容詞/副詞..., the + 比較級形容詞/副詞...  越……,就越……
• The deeper you sleep, the more refreshed you will feel when you wake up.
b. sugary a. 含糖的,甜的

4. 第四題空格應選 (F)
a. 本空格在測試對段落語意連貫性的掌握。空格前一句提到,牛津大學的研究團隊研究大聲、快節奏的音樂是否會提高人們對菜餚的辣度感受;而空格後一句提及,聆聽含有快節奏音樂的參與者表示食物的辣度及口味強度都提升了 10%,可推測空格應提及該測試的相關內容。
b. 選項 (F) 表示,有一百八十名自願者被要求在聽白噪音或快節奏音樂時品嚐辛辣的菜餚,語意連貫且符合推測,可知答案應選 (F)。
a. volunteer n. 自願者;義務工作者
• Ted became a hospital volunteer after he retired from business.
b. sample vt. 品嚐
• You’re welcome to sample any of our flavors of tea before deciding what to order.
c. spicy a. 辛辣的
d. white noise  白噪音
e. up-tempo a.(音樂)快節奏的

5. 第五題空格應選 (A)
a. 本空格在測試對段落語意連貫性的掌握,答題線索為空格後一句的 such music。
b. 空格後一句提到,「這類音樂」經常在提供辣食的餐廳裡播放,而選項 (A) 表示,能產生聲音調味最大效果的音樂類型是傳統的印度和巴西音樂,語意連貫,且後一句的 such music(這類音樂)即是選項中的 traditional Indian and Brazilian music(傳統的印度和巴西音樂),故答案應選 (A)。
genre n. 同類的所有文藝作品
• The writer’s work is acclaimed as the best of its genre.

1. of its / their kind  在該類事物當中
(常與 the first、the last 或最高級並用)
• This computer is the most powerful of its kind.

2. in comparison (to / with...)  
• The goods at this store are cheap. In comparison, everything at the store across the street is overpriced.
• The pace of life in the village is relaxed in comparison to that of any big city.

3. attribute A to B  將 A 歸因於 B
 attribute vt. 將??歸因於
• When Cathy encounters failure, she tends to attribute it to bad luck.

4. seek out... / seek... out  尋求/找到……
• You should start seeking out new employment opportunities before you quit your current job.

5. by a factor of + 百分比 / 數字  (增加或減少)……倍數
• The number of tourists coming to this country has grown by a factor of three this month.

6. It’s no wonder + that 子句  難怪……
= No wonder + S + V
• Leslie’s family never celebrates Christmas. It’s no wonder that she wasn’t looking forward to it.

7. serve up... / serve... up  提供/端上……(食物)
• My mother served up her famous fried dumplings and corn soup.

1. observable a. 看得見的,能觀察到的
• Mia has made observable progress in speaking English since she started taking that class.

2. overstimulated a. 受到過度刺激的
 stimulate vt. 刺激;促進
• Jason felt overstimulated after drinking three cups of coffee.
• Traveling can stimulate your mind and broaden your horizons.

3. confirm vt. 證實;確認
• The police confirmed that an inquiry into the shootings had been launched.

4. identical a. 完全相同/非常相似的
 be identical to...  與……一模一樣/非常相似
• Jim’s coat was identical to the one I bought last month.

5. perceive vt. 察覺,注意到(本文為過去分詞作形容詞用)
• Ann perceived a subtle change in her daughter’s behavior.

6. intense a. 強烈的
• Mary felt an intense headache after finishing the ice cream in one gulp.

7. bizarre a. 奇異的,古怪的
• The politician was found murdered in his home under bizarre circumstances.

expose A to B  將 A 暴露於 B 中
expose vt. 使暴露於;使接觸
• The scientist exposed mice to small amounts of radiation.
以下介紹 expose A to B 常見的意思及用法,此片語亦常用被動 be exposed to:
a. expose sb/sth to...  使某人/某物暴露/置身於……(險境、危險等)
• The residents near that factory were exposed to toxic substances after the explosion.
b. expose sb to sth  使某人接觸到某物
• Traveling exposes you to different cultures.
• Children should not be exposed to too much violence on TV.
以下介紹 expose 作及物動詞的其他意思:
c. 表「揭露,揭發」。
• The newspaper exposed the child abuse scandal in that orphanage.
d. 表「(尤指無意中)顯露(感情)」。
• Peter exposed his feelings for Nina by the way he looked at her.
e. 表「使(照片)曝光」。
• Don’t expose this film to light or your pictures will be ruined.


  另一項探討此種現象的研究是由牛津大學的研究人員所進行。該團隊研究大聲、快節奏的音樂是否會提高人們對菜餚的辣度感受。有一組一百八十名的自願者被要求在聽白噪音(編按:指在可測得的頻率範圍內頻率保持一致的聲音,像是重複撥放海浪聲、雨聲等)或快節奏音樂時品嚐辛辣的菜餚。不意外地,聆聽含有快速鼓聲及高音調之音樂的參與者報告說,食物的辣度及口味強度都提升了高達 10%。研究人員稱這種奇特現象為「聲音調味」。其中能產生最大效果的類型是傳統的印度和巴西音樂。難怪這類音樂經常在提供顧客辛辣食物的餐廳裡播放。
答案:1. B 2. E 3. D 4. F 5. A


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