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2016/08/19 第136期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份
紐時周報精選 Future House: 3-D Printed and Ready to Fly/3D列印+空運 未來房屋不是夢
The Capital of Car Culture, Los Angeles Warms to Mass Transit/汽車之都洛杉磯 擁抱大眾運輸
Future House: 3-D Printed and Ready to Fly/3D列印+空運 未來房屋不是夢
文/Paulette Perhach

Homes you can print, transport on the back of a truck, even fly. Although they sound like the homes of science fiction, they might well be the real residences of the not-too-distant future.

Impelled by the pressures of climate change and population growth and shaped by the promise of technologies like 3-D printing, a revolution is brewing in the future of homebuilding around the globe — especially in cities.



As Earth's inhabitants, we need to rethink almost everything about the way we live, especially in coastal cities, because our world may be reshaped by rising oceans in ways we can't yet fully anticipate, according to Hans-Peter Plag, a professor and director of the Mitigation and Adaptation Research Institute at Old Dominion University in Norfolk, Virginia.

"We have built with the design principle that sea level is not going to change," he said. "This time has come to an end. On the other hand, living in the coastal zone is extremely important for us. So we need to find a way to live in the coastal zone, but we cannot assume that sea level is stable."


他說:「我們之前建造房屋的設計原則,是海平面不會有所改變。 這個年代即將過去。另一方面,生活在沿海地帶對我們而言又非常重要。因此,我們需要找到在沿海地區居住的方法,但不能再假設海平面會穩定不變。」

Complicating the problem of a shrinking landmass is the prediction that the human population will grow to almost 10 billion people by 2050. And while many cities in the world will have to cope with extraordinary growth, others will have to prepare for shifting migration patterns that could leave them virtually deserted.

Today, 1 in 8 people live in urban slums, and by 2025, "it is likely that 1.6 billion will require adequate, affordable housing," according to the UN-Habitat's World Cities Report 2016.



Behrokh Khoshnevis, professor of engineering at the University of Southern California and director of its Center for Rapid Automated Fabrication Technologies (CRAFT), is one of many innovators looking to ease the housing crises of the future. "Somehow, we have to address the issue of shelter, which is at the base of the pyramid of needs," Khoshnevis said.

He hopes his 3-D printing construction method, which he calls Contour Crafting, will create a way to build homes for a fraction of the current cost. While he can't do anything about the price of land, Khoshnevis said his technology would build a house in a day and cut down on the construction cost by 30 percent.



The Capital of Car Culture, Los Angeles Warms to Mass Transit/汽車之都洛杉磯 擁抱大眾運輸
文/Adam Nagourney

When the extension of the Expo rail line opened here in May, it was almost as if the city had stepped into another century. Suddenly, it was possible to go from downtown to the Santa Monica beach by train, escaping a drive that could take two hours. The inaugural runs were packed with people, carrying beach chairs and recording the 15-mile, 45-minute long ride with cellphones.

The $1.5 billion, aboveground Expo project is not the only piece of the transit transformation unfolding here. An 11.5-mile extension of the Gold Line, running from Pasadena to Asuza, just northeast of downtown, opened this spring. If not as glamorous as a train to the Pacific Ocean, it was certainly appreciated by people in the San Gabriel Valley, who otherwise have to navigate the traffic of Interstate 210.



And all of that is likely to be dwarfed by an initiative that is expected to go before the voters in November, pending a final vote by the county board of supervisors, that would impose a countywide 1-cent transit sales tax, raising $860 million a year. The tax would finance 40 major transit projects over the next 40 years, including 100 miles of new rail lines and what has been a touchstone for mass transit advocates (and frustrated commuters) for decades: A train tunnel under the Sepulveda Pass, connecting the Los Angeles basin with the San Fernando Valley.

There may be no part of America more identified, for better and for worse, with the automobile than this city. But this burst of activity, and the considerable interest it has stirred here, suggests that a fundamental reconsideration of Los Angeles may be at hand, a shift to an era when mass transit — subways, light rail, buses — could be as central to getting around, and perhaps even to this region's image, as the car.



"For the car capital of America, if not the world, this is a bold new chapter," said Eric M. Garcetti, the mayor, who has been pushing the sales tax measure. "It doesn't ignore cars. But it really builds out a mass transit network that gets you from Point A to Point B."

"New York has opened one new station in the past five years," said Garcetti, a Democrat. "We opened a dozen. We have a lot of catching up to do. But we are finally saying we are going to do it."



說文解字看新聞 文/王麗娟

美國加州洛杉磯市有汽車之都(car capital)之稱,亦即居民幾乎全以汽車代步,所有基礎建設(infrastructure)與各種設施(facility)也以配合汽車的使用為出發點。不過,近來洛城已出現公共交通運輸系統轉型(transit transformation),本文甚至指出,洛城可能轉入(shift)多數民眾使用大眾運輸系統(mass transit)的新時代(era),並成為洛城的新形象(image)。

台灣的大眾捷運系統(Mass Rapid Transit,MRT)人人稱道,簡稱捷運。mass意為大眾、人民、群眾,rapid 為快速,transit為通路、運輸線、公共交通運輸系統。

文中的navigate,除有駕駛行走於州際210號高速公路之意,navigate口語上還有設法穿過、經過這條公路意思,意指驅車走這條公路,應比起搭鐵路來得辛苦。navigate也作導航解釋,除用於陸面駕駛,也可用於航海、航空,如Who first navigated the Pacific Ocean?(誰率先橫渡太平洋?)


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