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2020/07/17 第310期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份
紐時周報精選 Remember the MOOCs? After Near-Death, They’re Booming 線上教學平台因疫情重生 美賓州州大教授美術課爆紅
Reconsidering the Past, One Statue at a Time 推倒雕像 美國重新檢視歷史
Remember the MOOCs? After Near-Death, They’re Booming 線上教學平台因疫情重生 美賓州州大教授美術課爆紅
文/Steve Lohr
譯/李京倫 核稿/樂慧生

線上教學平台 因疫情重生

Sandeep Gupta, a technology manager in California, sees the economic storm caused by the coronavirus as a time “to try to future-proof your working life.” So he is taking an online course in artificial intelligence.


Dr. Robert Davidson, an emergency-room physician in Michigan, says the pandemic has cast “a glaring light on the shortcomings of our public health infrastructure.” So he is pursuing an online master’s degree in public health.


Children and college students aren’t the only ones turning to online education during the coronavirus pandemic. Millions of adults have signed up for online classes in the past two months, too — a jolt that could signal a renaissance for big online learning networks that had struggled for years.


Coursera, in which Gupta and Davidson enrolled, added 10 million new users from mid-March to mid-May, seven times the pace of new sign-ups in the previous year. Enrollments at edX and Udacity, two smaller education sites, have jumped by similar multiples.


“Crises lead to accelerations, and this is best chance ever for online learning,” said Sebastian Thrun, a co-founder and chairman of Udacity.


Coursera, Udacity and edX sprang up nearly a decade ago as high-profile university experiments known as MOOCs, for massive open online courses. They were portrayed as tech-fueled insurgents destined to disrupt the antiquated ways of traditional higher education. But few people completed courses, grappling with the same challenges now facing students forced into distance learning because of the pandemic. Screen fatigue sets in, and attention strays.


But the online ventures adapted through trial and error, gathering lessons that could provide a road map for school districts and universities pushed online. The instructional ingredients of success, the sites found, include short videos of six minutes or less, interspersed with interactive drills and tests; online forums where students share problems and suggestions; and online mentoring and tutoring.


A few top-tier universities, such as the University of Michigan and the Georgia Institute of Technology, offer some full degree programs through the online platforms.


While those academic programs are available, the online schools have tilted toward skills-focused courses that match student demand and hiring trends.


The COVID-19 effect on online learning could broaden the range of popular subjects, education experts say. But so far, training for the tech economy is where the digital-learning money lies. With more of work and everyday life moving online — some of it permanently — that will probably not change.




sexual assault性攻擊是不經同意,迫使對方與自己發生性行為,也就是強暴(rape)。在法律上是指強迫他人與自己性接觸的刑事罪,各國定義不同,有的包括強暴,有的專指強暴。

一般來說,rape和sexual assault可以互換,但rape比較直白,語氣強烈,情緒也較濃,sexual assault則比較正式,偏向官方用語,警方、法院或是統計上經常使用。

hill to die on這個慣用語源自軍事訓練,原意是不計代價占領一處高地,衍伸義是某件事非常重要,不論多困難都要處理,通常用在反面說法,如:It's not a hill I'm willing to die on.

Reconsidering the Past, One Statue at a Time 推倒雕像 美國重新檢視歷史
文/Sarah Mervosh, Simon Romero
譯/莊蕙嘉 核稿/樂慧生

推倒雕像 美國重新檢視歷史

The boiling anger that exploded in the days after George Floyd gasped his final breaths is now fueling a national movement to topple perceived symbols of racism and oppression in the United States, as protests over police brutality against African Americans expand to include demands for a more honest accounting of all American history.


In Portland, Oregon, demonstrators protesting against police killings turned their ire to Thomas Jefferson, toppling a statue of the Founding Father who also enslaved more than 600 people.


In Richmond, Virginia, a statue of Italian navigator and colonizer Christopher Columbus was spray-painted, set on fire and thrown into a lake.


And in Albuquerque, New Mexico, tensions over a statue of Juan de Oñate, a 16th-century colonial governor exiled from New Mexico over cruel treatment of Native Americans, erupted in street skirmishes and a blast of gunfire before the monument was removed.


Across the country, monuments criticized as symbols of historical oppression have been defaced and brought down at warp speed in recent days. The movement initially set its sights on Confederate symbols and examples of racism against African Americans but has since exploded into a broader cultural moment, forcing a reckoning over such issues as European colonization and the oppression of Native Americans.


In New Mexico, it has surfaced generations-old tensions among indigenous, Hispanic and Anglo residents and brought 400 years of turbulent history bubbling to the surface.


“We’re at this inflection point,” said Keegan King, a member of Acoma Pueblo, which endured a massacre of 800 or more people directed by Oñate, the brutal Spanish conquistador. The Black Lives Matter movement, he said, had encouraged people to examine the history around them, and not all of it was merely written in books.


“These pieces of systemic racism took the form of monuments and statues and parks,” King said.


The debate over how to represent the uncomfortable parts of American history has been going on for decades, but the traction for knocking down monuments seen in recent days raises new questions about whether it will result in a fundamental shift in how history is taught to new generations.


“It is a turning point insofar as there are a lot of people now who are invested in telling the story that historians have been laying down for decades,” said Julian Maxwell Hayter, a historian and associate professor at the University of Richmond.


He said that statues removed from parks and street corners could be teaching points if they are placed in museums, side-by-side with documents and first-person accounts from the era.



美國非裔男子佛洛伊德被白人警察壓頸致死引爆示威潮,美國數十年來未解的種族爭議再度浮上檯面。racism可譯為種族主義或種族歧視,字義本身包含因種族不同形成的差異,意同racial discrimination。

種族是敏感話題,用字必須謹慎,通常會用African描述黑人,例如佛洛伊德案中,新聞皆用African American描述其族裔。black則用於和白人對比的情況,例如Black Lives Matter運動。negro或nigger有「黑鬼、老黑」的嚴重歧視意味,切勿使用。

常見的歧視華人字眼有chino(老中)、chinito(中國佬)等,刻板印象濃厚。2012年2月,ESPN報導NBA台裔球員林書豪時,編輯下了「Chink in the Armor」的標題,原意是「盔甲的裂縫」,用來比喻他賽中的弱點,卻因chink一字也有「中國人」之意,源自華人普遍細長的眼睛,有種族歧視之嫌,引發軒然大波,那位編輯因此丟了飯碗。


億萬富翁企管顧問團隊 圓小資族成家積富的夢

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