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讀紐時學英文
2020/10/23 第319期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份
 
 
紐時周報精選 In Wake of Recent India-China Conflict,U.S. Sees Opportunity 印中交惡 美國看到機會
Venezuela, Once an Oil Giant, Reaches the End of an Era 石油巨擘委內瑞拉 風光不再
紐時周報精選
 
In Wake of Recent India-China Conflict,U.S. Sees Opportunity 印中交惡 美國看到機會
文/Pranshu Verma
譯/陳韋廷,核稿/樂慧生

印中交惡 美國看到機會

Weeks after India and China engaged in their deadliest border clash in decades, the sight of an American nuclear-powered aircraft carrier entering the Bay of Bengal drew attention across the region.

印度和中國間爆發數十年來死傷最重的邊境衝突過後數周,一艘美國核動力航空母艦駛入孟加拉灣,這個景象吸引了整個區域的目光。

The carrier, the USS Nimitz, and its strike group deployed to the area in mid-July to conduct an exercise with the Indian Navy in pursuit of a “free and open Indo-Pacific,” according to a statement by the U.S. Navy’s 7th Fleet, whose headquarters are in Japan. But as tensions soar between India and China, two nuclear-armed neighbors, the joint operation took on a greater significance.

根據總部設於日本的美國海軍第七艦隊發出的聲明,尼米茲號航艦及其打擊群7月中旬部署至該區域,與印度海軍舉行演習,以追求一個「自由開放的印太地區」 ,然而,隨著印度和中國這兩個緊鄰的核武國關係趨於緊張,此次美印聯合行動的意義也變得更加重大。

“It was symbolic,” said Tanvi Madan, the director of the India Project at the Brookings Institution. “It’s also signaling to China and others that the U.S. is standing by India.”

布魯金斯研究院印度項目負責人坦維.馬丹說:「這具有象徵意義。同時也向中國和其他國家發出美國站在印度這邊的訊號。」

As the rivalry between India and China intensifies, the United States and India have taken their shared anger toward Beijing and forged stronger diplomatic and military ties that could alter the balance of power in the region.

隨著印度與中國間對立加劇,美國與印度對北京同仇敵愾,並建立了更L大的外交與軍事關係,這可能會改變該地區的權力平衡。

“Both the U.S. and India have recognized the importance of the other,” said Nisha Biswal, an assistant secretary of state for South and Central Asian affairs during the Obama administration. “It’s not a surprise that the Indians are looking for like-minded strategic and security partners.”

歐巴馬政府時期負責南亞與中亞事務的助理國務卿妮莎.比思瓦說:「美國和印度都體認到對方的重要。印度正在尋找志同道合的戰略和安全合作夥伴,這並不奇怪。」

But some worry that the Trump administration is turning a blind eye to India’s rights abuses against Muslims under Prime Minister Narendra Modi, prioritizing military and geopolitical alliances over all else.

但部分人士擔心,川普政府對印度總理莫迪治下侵犯穆斯林權利的行為視而不見,將締結軍事與地緣政治聯盟置於一切之上。

“They are warming relations under the same authoritarian banner,” said Wasim Dar, an activist in the disputed territory of Kashmir. “They’re prioritizing military, or hegemony, over any kind of human rights or political freedom.”

爭議領土喀什米爾地區內的維權人士瓦西姆.達爾說:「他們正在同一個威權旗幟下升溫關係。他們把軍事或霸權擺在任何形式的人權或是政治自由之前。」

India and China have engaged in increasing aggression in recent months.

近幾個月來,印中相互挑釁不斷升高。

“Nobody’s backing down. They’re going to go through the winter like this,” said Vikram Singh, senior adviser to the Asia program at the U.S. Institute of Peace. “Now you’ve got a situation where there’s a whole bunch more flash points at a tactical level.”

美國和平研究所亞洲項目資深顧問維克拉姆.辛格說:「雙方都沒退縮,他們會像這樣度過這個冬天。目前情況是,在戰術層面上有更多衝突一觸即發的熱點。」

Human rights experts say it is troubling that the United States talks so strongly about human rights abuses in China but is willing to engage in deeper diplomatic and strategic ties with India, where similar situations are occurring.

“It’s basically hypocrisy,” Dar said.

人權專家表示,令人不安的是,美國厲聲指責中國侵犯人權的行為,卻願意跟發生類似情況的印度構建更深刻的外交和戰略關係。

達爾說:「這基本上就是偽善。」

說文解字看新聞【陳韋廷】

印中6月爆發邊境衝突,美國隔月便跟印度舉行海上聯合軍演試圖威懾中國,並趁機推動其「自由開放印太」戰略。該戰略是美國總統川普2017年上任後提出,用以取代歐巴馬的亞洲再平衡(Asia Rebalance)政策。

exercise在文中指「演習、軍事操練」,同義詞有manoeuvre與drill,三者均為新聞英文常見單字,而一般常見的海上軍演項目有anti-submarine/anti-ship operation(反潛/反艦行動)、escort drill(護航演習)與search and rescue drill(搜救演習)等等。

prioritize意指「優先處理、重視」,跟priority(優先事項)一樣源自於形容詞prior(優先的、在前的),又動詞片語turn a blind eye to sth指的是「對某一事物視若無睹」亦可用turn a deaf ear to sth(裝聾作啞)。

 
Venezuela, Once an Oil Giant, Reaches the End of an Era 石油巨擘委內瑞拉 風光不再
文/Sheyla Urdaneta, Anatoly Kur
譯/李京倫、核稿/樂慧生

石油巨擘委內瑞拉 風光不再

For the first time in a century, there are no rigs searching for oil in Venezuela.

百年來,委內瑞拉首次沒有鑽油平台在鑽探石油。

Wells that once tapped the world’s largest crude reserves are abandoned or left to flare toxic gases that cast an orange glow over depressed oil towns.

曾自全球最大原油礦藏採油的油井,不是廢棄,就是任由洩漏的毒性氣體逕自燃燒,使附近蕭條的石油城鎮蒙上一層橘光。

Refineries that once processed oil for export are rusting hulks, leaking crude that blackens shorelines and coats the water in an oily sheen.

先前把石油加工出口的煉油廠成了生鏽的殘骸,洩漏的原油染黑了海岸線,並在海面形成一層油光。

Fuel shortages have brought the country to a standstill. At gas stations, lines go on for miles.

燃料短缺使這個國家陷入癱瘓。在加油站,排隊加油的車輛綿延數哩。

Venezuela’s colossal oil sector, which shaped the country and the international energy market for a century, has come to a near halt, with production reduced to a trickle by years of gross mismanagement and U.S. sanctions. The collapse is leaving behind a destroyed economy and a devastated environment and, many analysts say, bringing to an end the era of Venezuela as an energy powerhouse.

委內瑞拉龐大的石油業曾形塑這個國家和國際能源市場長達百年,如今卻幾近停頓,由於多年來管理不善和遭受美國制裁,產量只剩一丁點。石油業崩潰導致經濟慘淡,環境重創,且如許多分析家所言,為委國作為能源大國的時代畫下句點。

The country that a decade ago was the largest producer in Latin America, earning about $90 billion a year from oil exports, is expected to net about $2.3 billion by this year’s end — less than the aggregate amount that Venezuelan migrants who fled the country’s economic devastation will send back home to support their families, according to Pilar Navarro, a Caracas, Venezuela-based economist.

長駐委國首都卡拉卡斯的經濟學家納瓦洛說,當地10年前是拉丁美洲最大產油國,每年出口石油賺進900億美元,但到今年年底,預計可進帳23億美元,還不及為逃避經濟崩潰而出國的國民匯回養家的金錢總額。

Production is the lowest in nearly a century after sanctions forced most oil companies to stop drilling for or buying Venezuelan oil — and even that trickle could dry up soon, analysts warn.

分析家警告,制裁迫使許多石油公司停止鑽探或購買委國石油,以致其產量降到近百年來最低,甚至最後這點生產也可能即將停止。

The decline has diminished beyond recognition a country that just a decade ago rivaled the United States for regional influence. It is also unraveling a national culture defined by oil, a source of cash that once seemed endless; it financed monumental public works and pervasive graft, generous scholarships and flashy shopping trips to Miami.

石油業衰落,使十年前與美國享有同等區域影響力的委內瑞拉面目全非,還破壞了以石油為基礎的的國家文化,石油曾經是看似取之不盡的現金來源:支應大型公共工程,助長普遍存在的貪腐,用以發放豐厚的獎學金,也讓人們享受到美國佛州邁阿密的豪華購物之旅。

Crippling gasoline shortages have led to an outbreak of dozens of daily protests across most Venezuelan states in recent weeks.

汽油嚴重短缺,導致最近幾周委內瑞拉多數州每天總共爆發數十場抗議。

More than 5 million Venezuelans, or 1 in 6 residents, have fled the country since 2015, creating one of the world’s greatest refugee crises, according to the United Nations. The country now has the highest poverty rate in Latin America, overtaking Haiti this year, according to a recent study by Venezuela’s three leading universities.

聯合國資料顯示,2015年起已有逾500萬,也就是六分之一委國人逃離,是全球最大難民潮之一。委國三所頂尖大學最近的調查顯示,委國今年取代海地,成為拉美貧困率最高的國家。

 
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