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2019/06/28 第268期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份
紐時周報精選 Bravery Is a Job Requirement. In Real Time, It Isn’t Always So Simple. 槍擊案「失能校警」被捕 當警察一定敢衝不怕死?
Why the Philippines Is a Hoops Haven 美國外最大粉絲來源國 為什麼菲律賓愛籃球?
Bravery Is a Job Requirement. In Real Time, It Isn’t Always So Simple. 槍擊案「失能校警」被捕 當警察一定敢衝不怕死?
文/Shaila Dewan and Richard A.

當警察 一定敢衝不怕死?

When Lt. Craig Cardinale got to Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School as a mass shooting was unfolding last year, he found Deputy Scot Peterson pacing outside, repeating, “Oh, my God. Oh, my God.”


The deputy, who was assigned to the school, was behaving in ways typically associated with fear or panic, the lieutenant told investigators. He was moving “back and forth,” talking to himself and “breathing heavily.”


What he was not doing was what the prevailing law enforcement protocol says was his first responsibility: Go into the building. Stop the gunman.


Peterson has been castigated and criminally charged with endangering children and culpable negligence in connection with the attack that left 17 people dead. The case against him is highly unusual and promises to raise all manner of legal questions, such as whether a police officer’s failure to perform as trained can lead to prison.


But it also raises a larger moral question: How much bravery do we expect, or demand, of law enforcement officers? What level of courage rises to the level of heroism — and what is just part of earning the paycheck?


Officers themselves are likely to hear inconsistent or even contradictory messages that may reflect the public’s polarized view of police as protectors or oppressors. Police officers rushed into the twin towers as they were collapsing; they have also shot and killed unarmed people for fear of losing their own lives.


“Every cop has heard some variation of ‘Your first job is to go home at the end of your shift,’ some version of ‘It’s better to be tried by 12 than carried by six.’ And every cop has also heard ‘You are the heroes; you are the front lines of defense; you are the ones who are supposed to run toward the gunshots,’ ” said Seth Stoughton, a former police officer who now teaches law at the University of South Carolina.


Expectations and training have changed drastically since the Columbine High School massacre in 1999, when law enforcement was criticized for failing to quickly confront the assailants and 13 people died. Until then, typical police protocol had been for officers to wait for backup, or for the SWAT team to arrive.


But after that, many departments rewrote policies to emphasize that every minute could mean another death. Officers were instructed to impede or take down the gunman immediately.


Dan Oates, who was the chief of police in Aurora, Colorado, when 12 people died and 70 were wounded in a shooting in a movie theater there in 2012, said officers are now drilled in tactics that put the well-being of hostages and innocents first.




culpable negligence則意指「有罪過失」,為一法律用語,其中culpable意指「該責備的、 有罪的」,negligence在法律中則代表過失行為,而重大過失刑事罪的英文則是criminal gross negligence。

此外,片語take down在文中意指「幹掉,除掉」,並非我們一般所知道的「寫下來、抄下來」的意思,又同段片語put...first則指的是把...放在首位,例如把我的事業擺在第一位,英文會說put my career first。

Why the Philippines Is a Hoops Haven 美國外最大粉絲來源國 為什麼菲律賓愛籃球?
文/Sopan Deb


Go to any street corner in the Philippines. Any village. Any beach. Even a church. You’re likely to see a basketball jersey.


“It’s often described as a religion,” Carlo Roy Singson, managing director of NBA Philippines, said in an interview.


Indeed, basketball is ingrained in Filipino culture and has been for more than a century.

The sport’s permeation of a country of about 105 million began in the late 1800s, when Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States in 1898 after the Spanish-American War.

的確,籃球在菲律賓文化扎根已超過一個世紀。 籃球於19世紀末傳入這個目前有一億零五百萬人口的國家,終至遍布每個角落。1898年西班牙在美西戰爭中戰敗,把菲律賓割讓給美國。

A large facet of the introduction of the fledgling game was Christian missionaries, who were part of the YMCA, or Young Men’s Christian Association. The game’s inventor, Dr. James Naismith, conceived of the sport at what was then known as the International YMCA Training School in Springfield, Massachusetts.


To take a round object and throw it into a peach hoop, as Naismith pictured it, could be a character-building endeavor. Soon after he invented it, missionaries began spreading it around the world, particularly in the Far East and the Philippines, in U.S.-controlled areas — a kind of sports imperialism.


The NBA and its players, recognizing the sport’s popularity in the Philippines, have invested time there in recent years. In 2013, the Houston Rockets and the Indiana Pacers played a preseason game there. According to a spokesman for the league, the NBA’s Facebook page has 7.3 million followers from the Philippines, the largest of any country outside of the United States.


This all began in the early 1900s, when basketball was introduced into schools in the Philippines. In 1913, the first Far Eastern Championship Games — an early version of what is now known as the Asian Games — took place in Manila, featuring several East Asian countries taking part in Olympics-style competitions, including basketball.


It was the first of 10 biennial events, before disagreements between the countries disbanded the games. The Philippines won gold in nine of them.


The country’s population took to the sport en masse. In 1936, its national team made the Olympics and finished fifth. At the 1954 FIBA World Championship, the Philippines won a bronze medal, the best finish for an Asian country.


Two decades later, in 1975, the Philippine Basketball Association, Asia’s first basketball league, was created. These games kept the sport at the forefront of Filipino culture and helped grow interest throughout the 20th century.


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