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2020/02/28 第296期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份
紐時周報精選 After ‘Parasite,’ Are Subtitles Still a 1-Inch Barrier for Americans? 「寄生上流」後 美國人克服了一英寸字幕障礙?
Voting by Phone? Elections App Sets Off Alarm 美國大選手機投票 引發安全爭議
After ‘Parasite,’ Are Subtitles Still a 1-Inch Barrier for Americans? 「寄生上流」後 美國人克服了一英寸字幕障礙?
文/Sandra E. Garcia
譯/陳韋廷 核稿/樂慧生

寄生上流後 美國人克服了字幕障礙?

Last month, when Bong Joon Ho, the South Korean director of the film “Parasite,” accepted the Golden Globe for best foreign language film, he teased American moviegoers that a whole world of wonderful cinema awaited them beyond Hollywood.


“Once you overcome the 1-inch-tall barrier of subtitles, you will be introduced to so many more amazing films,” Bong said during his acceptance speech.


In the United States, foreign language films with subtitles rarely gain the traction that “Parasite” has. It won over both audiences and critics and raked in more than $35 million on its way to winning four Academy Awards , capping a glittering awards season with a best picture Oscar. It was the first film not in English to take home the top prize in the Academy’s 92-year history.


It was a seismic night for fans of foreign films in the United States, where moviegoers have historically preferred their popular films in English. And it left some wondering: Are those 1-inch-tall subtitles still a barrier?


Even before “Parasite,” a thriller about the class divide in South Korea, took off, there were signs that things had begun to shift for subtitled entertainment in the United States. The film joined a small group of subtitled films that have broken through to mainstream success in Hollywood over the last two decades, like “Roma” (2018), “Pan’s Labyrinth” (2006), “Amelie” (2001) and “Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon” (2000), a Chinese drama that earned $128 million, making it the highest grossing foreign language film in the United States.


Over the same period, as streaming services have replaced network and cable television, subtitles have also gained a stronger toehold on smaller screens, from cellphones to TV sets.


Researchers credit the shift in part to two factors. The first is a 2016 rule from the Federal Communications Commission that made it mandatory for a TV show that has been captioned for broadcast to also be captioned when it is posted online or on a streaming service such at Netflix or Hulu. The second factor, they say, is Netflix itself. It is the most popular streaming platform in the United States, with more than 60 million paid subscribers, and much of its original content is in languages other than English.


More than 50% of the audiences for the Netflix shows “Dark,” which is in German, and “3%”, which is in Portuguese, are international.


A Netflix spokeswoman pointed to “Narcos,” a series about drug dealers in Mexico and Colombia. It has scenes in both Spanish and English, and uses subtitles for the Spanish dialogue, but that hasn’t kept the show from being popular, she said.


Voting by Phone? Elections App Sets Off Alarm 美國大選手機投票 引發安全爭議
文/Matthew Rosenberg
譯/陳韋廷 核稿/樂慧生

美大選手機投票 引發安全爭議

For more than a decade, it has been an elusive dream for election officials: a smartphone app that would let swaths of voters cast their ballots from their living rooms. It has also been a nightmare for cyberexperts, who argue that no technology is secure enough to trust with the very basis of American democracy.


The debate, long a sideshow at academic conferences and state election offices, is now taking on new urgency. A startup called Voatz says it has developed an app that would allow users to vote securely from anywhere in the world — the electoral version of a moonshot. Thousands are set to use the app in this year’s elections, a small but growing experiment that could pave the way for a wider acceptance of mobile voting.


But where optimists see a more engaged electorate, critics are warning that the move is dangerously irresponsible. In a new report shared with The New York Times before its publication Thursday, researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology say the app is so riddled with security issues that no one should be using it.

In response to the report, the Department of Homeland Security organized a series of briefings in recent weeks for state and local officials who are planning to use Voatz’s technology.


“The choice here is not about turnout,” the report says, “but about an adversary controlling the election result and a loss of voter privacy.”


With security already a dominant theme of the 2020 elections, the debacle at the Democratic caucuses in Iowa — an app used to report results failed to, well, report results — has raised new questions about the role technology should play in American elections and prompted calls for it to be scaled back.


While a return to the analog days of punch cards and hanging chads is unlikely, there is growing unease about how far state and local governments should go in modernizing election infrastructure — from registration databases and electronic poll books to the voting machines themselves.


An initial experiment with wide-scale online voting took place in Washington a decade ago. It was called off after researchers hacked into the system, electing HAL 9000 — the computer from “2001: A Space Odyssey” — as mayor and making the University of Michigan fight song play every time a ballot was cast.

十年前,華盛頓進行了一次大規模網路投票的初步實驗,它在研究人員駭入系統,讓系統選出HAL 9000型電腦(源自電影《2001:太空漫遊》)當市長,並且每有一票投下就播一次密西根大學的戰歌後叫停。

Since then, some states have allowed online voting through web portals, emails or digital faxes, despite the security risks. But they have restricted it to groups of people who cannot make it to the polls, mostly overseas military personnel.




作者用elusive形容難圓的美夢,這個字在本文意指很困難甚至不可能達到的:An agreement to end the fighting remains elusive.(停戰遙遙無期)。Moonshot原意是登月計畫,引申為充滿冒險企圖、目標遠大的計畫。這個字近幾年常和搜尋引擎巨擘「谷歌」連在一起,企業成立The Moonshot Factory,特點是很燒錢,每個計畫動輒從十億美金起跳,執行一些異想天開,恐怕難以達成的構想。

Riddled with與其說是充滿,不如說是「充斥」,因為專接負面字彙:The organization was riddled with spies.(完全被滲透的單位)或The report was riddled with errors.(通篇謬誤的報告)。

那霸散步紀行 崖上的那霸

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