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2018/01/19 第200期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份
紐時周報精選 Salacious, Shocking and Sordid, and Now a National Treasure「創世以來人類寫下的最淫亂的故事」 法國列為國寶
As Silicon Valley Gets 'Crazy,' Midwest Beckons Tech Investors矽谷過熱 科技投資轉向中西部
Salacious, Shocking and Sordid, and Now a National Treasure「創世以來人類寫下的最淫亂的故事」 法國列為國寶
文/Kimiko de Freytas-Tamura

The writings, etched in dark ink on a small scroll, tell the sordid story of four debauched aristocrats who lock themselves away in a castle to play out their wildest sexual fantasies, which run the gamut from orgies and animals to torture — including placing a firework up a bottom.

Even their author — the Marquis de Sade, the 18th-century French nobleman whose libidinous antics helped break sexual mores and inspired the word sadism — considered his work “the most impure tale ever written since the world began.”



France considered Sade such a notorious philanderer that he was jailed under royal orders in the late 1700s, including in the Bastille prison in Paris for over a decade, just before it was stormed by revolutionaries. It was during this time that he wrote his salacious text.

But more than two centuries later, the French government last month recognized his work, titled “120 Days of Sodom, or The School of Libertinage,” as a national treasure.



The government decision came just a day before his work was about to be sold off at an auction in Paris, and means that the document, Sade’s earliest work of fiction, may not be taken out of the country for at least 30 months. During that time, the state is expected to shore up funds to purchase it at international rates, according to officials involved in the sale and the government decision.

Officials also designated André Breton’s “Surrealist Manifesto” as a national treasure.



Sade’s work, written on a scroll measuring 3 feet long and just 4 inches wide, “is a serious document of literature, of France’s literary history,” said Frédéric Castaing, an expert on 18th-century manuscripts and a member of a commission that advises the government on what works should be designated as national treasures.

“Without a doubt, it is a writing that challenges, that reaches into the depths of humanity, of the obscure,” Castaing said. Sade, he added, was one of France’s most influential authors of the 18th century, alongside Voltaire and Diderot, and inspired the Surrealist movement in the 20th century.



The Ministry of Culture said that the manuscript was “remarkable,” given the prison conditions in which it was written and its journey through different hands. The ministry also pointed to the work’s “sulfurous reputation” and its influence on a number of 20th-century French authors.

The writing, it said, “is of great significance, as much as it is his first work as it is his most radical and most monumental.”







至於這兩個城市的罪孽為何,傳統上認為與同性性行為有關,許多專家認為是居民普遍行同性性行為而招致毀滅。聖經其他提及索多瑪與蛾摩拉的段落,如「猶大書」談到了行淫與「逆性的情慾」(unnatural lust),「以西結書」提到「可憎的事」,被視為這個觀點的佐證,然而這種說法也受到一定程度的質疑。


As Silicon Valley Gets 'Crazy,' Midwest Beckons Tech Investors矽谷過熱 科技投資轉向中西部
文/Steve Lohr

They seem an odd couple: J.D. Vance, author of “Hillbilly Elegy,” his best-selling memoir of growing up in the postindustrial Midwest and his journey of escape; and Steve Case, the billionaire co-founder of America Online.

But Vance joined Case’s investment firm this year to scour the Midwest for small yet promising startups, particularly for a new seed fund. The firm, Revolution, plans to raise up to $100 million for that fund’s investments, it disclosed in a filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

他們似乎是奇怪的一對:傑德.凡斯與史蒂夫.凱斯。前者著有暢銷回憶錄《 絕望者之歌》,敘述自己在後工業時代美國中西部的成長過程及逃脫之旅;後者則是「美國線上」的億萬富豪共同創辦人。


They are by no means the only notable investors seeking opportunity in the region. Four years ago, Mark Kvamme, a top venture capitalist in Silicon Valley, left the heart of the tech industry to become a tech investor here in the Midwest heartland.

After a slow start, his firm has raised $550 million and invested in 26 companies. Its bet is that the middle of America amounts to an undervalued asset, rich in markets, new business ideas and budding entrepreneurs. The Midwest, the thinking goes, is not only untapped, but also an antidote to the scalding-hot tech market on the West Coast.



“Silicon Valley is kind of crazy now,” Kvamme said.

The money, power and influence of tech companies on the West Coast have reached new heights. Apple, Alphabet, Microsoft and Amazon are now the four most valuable companies in the country.



Venture capital, the financial fuel for new companies, is also concentrated on the coast. More than 50 percent of all venture capital money spent in the United States goes to companies in California alone, according to the National Venture Capital Association.

But some investors, led by people like Kvamme and his firm, Drive Capital, see plenty of potential in the center of the country. Focusing on the Midwest is no longer considered a nutty idea, as it was by skeptical West Coast venture capitalists when Kvamme and Chris Olsen, another Silicon Valley transplant from Sequoia Capital and co-founder of Drive Capital, made the move in 2013.


然而由柯華姆這樣的人跟他的公司Drive Capital領頭的部分投資人,卻在美國中部看到了很大的潛力。聚焦美國中西部不再被看成瘋狂的想法,而柯華姆和另一位來自紅杉資本的移植者暨Drive Capital共同創辦人克里斯.歐森2013年採取行動時,美國西岸抱持懷疑態度的創投業者都認為他們瘋了。

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