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2018/11/09 第240期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份
紐時周報精選 Centuries-Old Giants, Beloved but in Peril 百年巨木備受喜愛 但處境危殆
Lavender's Soothing Scent Could Be More Than Just Folk Medicine 薰衣草香讓人鎮靜 可能不只是民俗療法
Centuries-Old Giants, Beloved but in Peril 百年巨木備受喜愛 但處境危殆
文/Dionne Searcey

Wide, awkward baobab trees blend into the cityscape of Dakar, the busy capital of Senegal, almost without notice.


Drivers wash a fleet of taxis parked beneath one giant tree near a freeway on-ramp. Rusting cars with open hoods are parked in a mechanic’s shop under the shade of another. A leathery trunk is a community billboard, with ads nailed to it for a plumber and an apartment for rent.


Aliou Ndour stood on a crowded corner, pulled out his phone and scrolled past the pictures of friends and family to another precious photo: the baobab in his home village.


Fat baobabs, some more than half a millennium old, have endured across Senegal, passed over for lumber largely because their wood is too brittle and spongy for use in furniture. Baobab leaves are mixed with couscous and eaten, the trees’ bark stripped to make rope, their fruit and seeds used for drinks and oils.


Something else has helped preserve these giants: They are beloved.


“This,” said Adama Dieme, craning his neck to look up at the spread of branches of the baobab on his block, “is the pride of the neighborhood.”


But baobabs, like many of the region’s trees, are in jeopardy, threatened by the same forces upending numerous facets of society — climate change, urbanization and population growth.


West Africa has lost much of the natural resources once tied so closely to its cultural identity. Poaching has stolen most of its wildlife; lions, giraffes and desert elephants are sorely endangered.


Huge swaths of forest are being razed to clear space for palm oil and cocoa plantations. Mangroves are being killed off by pollution. Even wispy acacias are hacked away for use in cooking fires to feed growing families.


A recent study said climate change might be blamed for the deaths of some of Africa’s oldest and biggest baobabs. In Senegal, local researchers estimate the nation has lost half its baobabs in the past 50 years to drought and development.


One of the biggest developments in the country is outside Dakar, where Senegal’s president is building an entirely new city, in the middle of a baobab forest. Officials have pledged to replant any trees they raze.


On the far edges of the development, construction workers were building new homes. The corpse of one baobab laid on the ground, a musty smell lingering at its exposed hollow interior. The smooth marks of an ax scarred its trunk.


Other charred carcasses of baobabs lay nearby. A worker said those had been torched with gasoline.


“Whenever you see a baobab that has fallen down, you’re sad,” said Gorgui Kebbe, the worker.


“It’s a symbol of our country. But having a house to live in takes priority.”




peril語氣比danger強。danger泛指危險、危害、威脅,peril指嚴重的危險(尤其是死亡),通常指重大而立即的危險,或受到傷害、損失或破壞的風險,例如某種動物「面臨滅絕的危險」,就可以說in peril of extinction。

jeopardy是正式用語,意思幾乎跟peril一樣,但強調「暴露」在危險中,通常會以慣用語to put someone/something in jeopardy來用。

jeopardy還用在法律上。當我們說,被告的同一罪行不能審判兩次,就是「一事不再理」原則,英文說protection against double jeopardy(禁止雙重危險、禁止雙重追訴),意思就是你不能為了同一個罪行,讓某人的自由陷入危險兩次。

Lavender's Soothing Scent Could Be More Than Just Folk Medicine 薰衣草香讓人鎮靜 可能不只是民俗療法
文/JoAnna Klein

Lavender bath bombs; lavender candles; deodorizing lavender sachets for your shoes, car or underwear drawer; lavender diffusers; lavender essential oils; even lavender chill pills for humans and dogs. And from Pinterest: 370 recipes for lavender desserts.


Take a deep breath. Release.


People like lavender. We have been using this violet-capped herb since at least medieval times. It smells nice. But Google “lavender” and results hint at perhaps the real fuel for our obsession: “tranquility,” “calm,” “relaxation,” “soothing” and “serenity.” Lavender has purported healing powers for reducing stress and anxiety. But are these effects more than just folk medicine?


Yes, said Hideki Kashiwadani, a physiologist and neuroscientist at Kagoshima University in Japan — at least in mice.


“Many people take the effects of ‘odor’ with a grain of salt,” he said in an email. “But among the stories, some are true based on science.”


In a study published Tuesday in the journal Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, he and his colleagues found that sniffing linalool, an alcohol component of lavender odor, was kind of like popping a Valium. It worked on the same parts of a mouse’s brain, but without all the dizzying side effects. And it did not target parts of the brain directly from the bloodstream, as was thought. Relief from anxiety could be triggered just by inhaling through a healthy nose.


Their findings add to a growing body of research demonstrating anxiety-reducing qualities of lavender odors and suggest a new mechanism for how they work in the body. Kashiwadani believes this new insight is a key step in developing lavender-derived compounds like linalool for clinical use in humans.


Kashiwadani and his colleagues became interested in learning how linalool might work for anti-anxiety while testing its effects on pain relief in mice. In this earlier study, they noticed that the presence of linalool seemed to calm mice.


In this study, they exposed mice to linalool vapor, wafting from filter paper inside a specially made chamber to see if the odor triggered relaxation. Mice on linalool were more open to exploring, indicating they were less anxious than normal mice. And they did not

behave like they were drunk, as mice on benzodiazepines, a drug used to treat anxiety, or injected with linalool did.


But the linalool did not work when they blocked the mice’s ability to smell, or when they gave the mice a drug that blocks certain receptors in the brain. This suggested that to work, linalool tickled odor-sensitive neurons in the nose that send signals to just the right spots in the brain — the same ones triggered by Valium.



東京穴場 銀杏、楓紅一次賞足
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