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2019/02/26 第404期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份直接訂閱

When Less Is More  少即是多 微型機器人拯救世界
by Bruce E. Bagnell


  You may not be familiar with the US agency DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency), but you are no doubt familiar with some of the agency’s accomplishments. Since DARPA is under the Department of Defense, you may think their cutting-edge technological success must have something to do with war. You would be only partially correct. Take the internet __1__. Yes, that was one of DARPA’s projects. How about humanoid robots? Though they were at first a science-fiction creation, DARPA has brought them to life. Now the agency has set its sights on the miniaturization of robots. The Robot Olympics, featuring one- to two-centimeter-sized robots, is set to __2__ in March 2019. The new DARPA program called SHRIMP (Short-Range Independent Microbiotic Platforms) shows that even the military has a __3__ of humor.
  Smaller can sometimes be much better. The advantages of small-scale machines are __4__: they are cheaper, more easily hidden or disguised, and programmable to perform many tasks. Powered by tiny batteries and computer microchips, they can find and relay back to their handlers important information. In peacetime, they may be used in search-and-rescue operations after natural disasters or for inspecting dangerous environments. The Robot Olympics will test private companies’ inventions to see __5__ mini-robot can jump the farthest, lift the most weight, and maneuver the best. Winning entries may receive government contracts to further develop and apply these tiny miracle workers to medicine, surveillance, sensory improvement, and more.
1. (A) by accident  (B) for example  (C) off the record  (D) in some cases
2. (A) hand out  (B) check in  (C) pull over  (D) kick off
3. (A) basis  (B) taste  (C) sense  (D) breath
4. (A) obvious  (B) efficient  (C) frequent  (D) doubtful
5. (A) each  (B) their  (C) which  (D) whether


1. Take the internet for example.
a. (A) by accident  意外地;無意間
= accidentally adv.
•Tina reached for the milk but knocked it over by accident.
(B) for example  舉例來說
take... for example  舉……為例
•Take Mom for example. She’s very traditional.
(C) off the record  不供發表的;私下的
•Don’t publish what I said today—it’s off the record.
不要公開我今天說的話 ── 這是不許對外公布的。
(D) in some cases  在某些情況下
•Use this medication with care. In some cases, it may have side effects on the liver.
b. 根據語意,就舉網際網路「為例」吧,且 “take... for example” 為固定用法,故 (B) 項應為正選。

2. The Robot Olympics, featuring one- to two-centimeter-sized robots, is set to kick off in March 2019.
a. (A) hand out... / hand... out  發放/分發……
•Jimmy got a part-time job handing out flyers in front of the store.
(B) check in  辦理登機/住房手續
•You’d better check in at least one hour before the plane takes off.
(C) pull over  (使車輛)停靠在路邊
•Joseph pulled over to the side of the road because he had a flat tire.
(D) kick off  開始
•The game kicked off right after the parade of nations.
b. 根據語意,奧林匹克機器人大賽預計於 2019 年三月「揭幕」,故 (D) 項應為正選。

3. The new DARPA program called SHRIMP (Short-Range Independent Microbiotic Platforms) shows that even the military has a sense of humor.
a. (A) basis n. 基礎,基本成分
on the basis of...  以……為基準,根據……
•The decision to give us a raise was made on the basis of our work performance.
(B) taste n. 愛好
have a taste for...  愛好……
•Tim has a taste for expensive clothes.
(C) sense n. 感覺;意識
a sense of...  ……感
a sense of humor / direction  幽默/方向感
•Bob doesn’t have a good sense of direction, so he never drives without his GPS.
(D) breath n. 呼吸
catch one’s breath  某人喘口氣
•Give me a few minutes to catch my breath before you ask me questions.
b. 空格前有動詞 has(有)及不定冠詞 a,空格後有介詞 of 及名詞 humor(幽默),得知空格應置 sense 以形成 “a sense of humor” 的固定用法,故 (C) 項應為正選。

4. The advantages of small-scale machines are obvious: they are cheaper, more easily hidden or disguised, and programmable to perform many tasks.
a. (A) obvious a. 明顯的,顯見的
•It is obvious that Greg didn’t sleep well last night.
(B) efficient a. 有效率的
•The boss likes Kate because she is efficient.
(C) frequent a. 經常的
•The politician made frequent attacks on his opponent’s character.
(D) doubtful a. 懷疑的
be doubtful of...  懷疑……
•Please don’t be doubtful of my intentions.
b. 空格後列舉小型機器的許多好處,得知其好處「顯而易見」,故 (A) 項應為正選。

5. The Robot Olympics will test private companies’ inventions to see which mini-robot can jump the farthest, lift the most weight, and maneuver the best.
a. (A) each(每一個)及 (B) their(他們的)置入空格後,可修飾其後的單數名詞 mini-robot,形成名詞子句(其前省略 that)作前面及物動詞 see 的受詞,但不符合前後語意,故 (A)、(B) 不可選。
b. (C) which(哪一個)為疑問詞,可引導名詞子句作及物動詞 see 的受詞,且由於 which 為疑問形容詞,置入空格後,亦可修飾其後的單數名詞 mini-robot,在名詞子句中作主詞用,符合語意及用法,故為正選。
c. (D) whether(是否)亦可引導名詞子句作及物動詞 see 的受詞,但由於 mini-robot 是可數名詞,作主詞時須與冠詞、限定詞並用或用複數,因此 whether 置入後會造成 mini-robot 無法作主詞用的情況,故 (D) 不可選。

1. be familiar with...  熟悉……
•Are you familiar with the head librarian at our university?

2. no doubt  毫無疑問地
= without (a) doubt
= doubtless adv.
•Henry will no doubt be late again this morning.

3. set one’s sights on...  決心要做到……
•I’ve set my sights on getting into a college in France.

4. be set to V  預定/準備好……
•The press conference is set to begin at 10:30 a.m.

1. defense n. 防禦
•The world must improve its defenses against infectious diseases.

2. accomplishment n. 成就
•Helping others gives Christine a sense of accomplishment.

3. technological a. 科技的
•The 3-D effects in that movie are technological breakthroughs because they create sensations that viewers have never felt before.
那部電影的 3D 特效是科技上的突破,因為它們創造出觀眾從沒體驗過的感官享受。

4. partially adv. 部分地
= in part
•The guard was partially at fault for the theft.

5. feature vt. 以……為主要特色
•The magazine features the latest fashion trends.

6. disguise vt. 掩飾,偽裝
disguise oneself as...  某人喬裝成……
•Jacob disguised himself as Batman last Halloween.

7. relay vt. 傳達,傳遞;轉傳
•The doctor relayed the outcome of the surgery to the patient’s family.

8. operation n.(有目的的)活動,行動
•Following the flood, a large-scale rescue operation was launched.

9. disaster n. 災難
•The singer tried her hand at hosting a talk show, but it turned out to be a disaster.

10. inspect vt. 檢查,查驗
•Sandy inspected all the windows before the typhoon came.

11. maneuver vi. 巧妙地移動
•It’s hard to maneuver around these obstacles.

12. entry n. 參賽作品
•I have participated in several design competitions, and some of my entries have received high marks from judges.

have (something) to do with...  與……有關
•I believe Fred had something to do with my missing jacket.
其他與 have (something) to do with... 相關的常見用法如下:
a. have nothing to do with...  與……無關
•My illness has nothing to do with the food we ate tonight. It’s because of my medication.
b. have everything to do with...  和……密切相關
•This problem has everything to do with you.
c. have a lot / much to do with...  與……有很大的關係
•The way one behaves has a lot to do with one’s upbringing.
d. have little to do with...  和……幾乎無關
•Your comment has little to do with our discussion.

cutting-edge a. 尖端的
humanoid a. 人型的 & n. 人型機器人
miniaturization n. 微型化
microbiotic a. 微型機器人的
small-scale a. 小規模的
programmable a. 可以用程式控制的
microchip n. 晶片
handler n. 操作者
peacetime n. 和平時期
surveillance n. 監視
sensory a. 感應的;知覺的

少即是多 微型機器人拯救世界

  你或許對美國機構 DARPA(國防高等研究計劃署)不甚熟悉,但你肯定對這個機構的某些成就耳熟能詳。由於 DARPA 隸屬於國防部,你可能會認為他們在尖端科技上的成功一定和戰爭有關。你只答對了一部分。就舉網際網路為例吧。沒錯,它是 DARPA 的其中一個計畫。那人型機器人呢?雖然它們一開始只是科幻小說裡的產物,DARPA 已使它們成為現實。如今,該組織著眼於將機器人微型化。奧林匹克機器人大賽預計於 2019 年三月揭幕,主打只有一至兩公分大的機器人。DARPA 這項新的計畫名為 SHRIMP(短程獨立微型機器人平臺),證明了即使是軍方也有幽默感(編按:該計畫的縮寫 SHRIMP 一字在英文中為「蝦子」之意。)。
1. B 2. D 3. C 4. A 5. C



技法 X 心法

技法 X 心法

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