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2018/06/22 第220期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份
紐時周報精選 Russian City's Dazzling New Soccer Stadium Outshines Its Team 俄為世足砸大錢 新球場比球隊搶眼
Your Recyclables Get Recycled, Right? 陸拒收海外垃圾 美頭大
Russian City's Dazzling New Soccer Stadium Outshines Its Team 俄為世足砸大錢 新球場比球隊搶眼
文/Andrew E. Kramer

Nikita I. Zakharov leads the fan club for the soccer team in this leafy, slow-paced provincial city, and yet he keeps a cleareyed view of its place in the wider world of soccer.

“We cannot really boast of soccer success,” he said mournfully. The team, Baltika, plays in a second-tier Russian league. In its 64-year history, it has won the championship once — in 1995, “the golden year!” exclaimed Zakharov — and came in second twice, in 1959 and 1961.



Its biggest win, it turns out, was not so much on the field as with a field. Rising out of a formerly undeveloped swampy area in the city, a gigantic, glistening $280 million stadium appeared this year, one of six new arenas Russia built for the World Cup.

It is a bumper crop of new stadiums that, even by World Cup standards, appear out of proportion with the small crowds drawn by local teams like Baltika, which will use the venues after the tournament.



Their construction, at a cumulative cost estimated at $11 billion along with related infrastructure, illustrates how sports, as with the oil and mining businesses, has become integral to how the Kremlin and Russia’s ultra-wealthy financiers, known as the oligarchs, do business together.

World Cup stadiums became a means to reward well-connected businessmen, said Ilya Shumanov, deputy director of the anti-corruption group Transparency International.

“Authoritarian regimes love megasports projects,” Shumanov said. “Huge sums are distributed from the budget. It’s bread and circuses at the same time.”




The lucrative deal in Kaliningrad, a Russian exclave between Lithuania and Poland, went to the company of Aras Agalarov, who is one of Russia’s wealthiest men. Agalarov also had a commercial relationship with Donald Trump, having partnered with him in 2013 to host the Miss Universe pageant in Moscow.

“The Agalarovs are very well connected, in Azerbaijan, in Russia and in the United States,” Shumanov said.



The stadium in Kaliningrad is among those that went to cities with no top-tier soccer team. In one instance, a stadium with 45,000 seats went up in Saransk, a city with a population of 297,000.

The designs of the new stadiums nod to local pride. In Kaliningrad and St. Petersburg, both port towns, the stadiums’ look hints at ships. Mastlike towers suspend the roofs. The flying-saucer-shaped Cosmos Arena appeared in Samara, a center of the space industry.

Kaliningrad’s residents have been scratching their heads over what to do with the stadium when the World Cup is over.




Your Recyclables Get Recycled, Right? 陸拒收海外垃圾 美頭大
文/Livia Albeck-Ripka

Oregon is serious about recycling. Its residents are accustomed to dutifully separating milk cartons, yogurt containers, cereal boxes and kombucha bottles from their trash to divert them from the landfill. But this year, because of a far-reaching rule change in China, some of the recyclables are ending up in the local dump anyway.

In recent months, in fact, thousands of tons of material left curbside for recycling in dozens of U.S. cities and towns — including several in Oregon — have gone to landfills.



In the past, the municipalities would have shipped much of their used paper, plastics and other scrap materials to China for processing. But as part of a broad antipollution campaign, China announced last summer that it no longer wanted to import “foreign garbage.” Since Jan. 1 it has banned imports of various types of plastic and paper, and tightened standards for materials it does accept.

While some waste managers already send their recyclable materials to be processed domestically, or are shipping more to other countries, others have been unable to find a substitute for the Chinese market. “All of a sudden, material being collected on the street doesn’t have a place to go,” said Pete Keller, vice president of recycling and sustainability at Republic Services, one of the largest waste managers in the country.



China’s stricter requirements also mean that loads of recycling are more likely to be considered contaminated if they contain materials that are not recyclable. That has compounded a problem that waste managers call wishful or aspirational recycling: people setting aside items for recycling because they believe or hope they are recyclable, even when they are not.

In the Pacific Northwest, Republic has diverted more than 2,000 tons of paper to landfills since the Chinese ban came into effect, Keller said. The company has been unable to move that material to a market “at any price or cost,” he said. Though Republic is dumping only a small portion of its total inventory so far — the company handles more than 5 million tons of recyclables nationwide each year — it sent little to no paper to landfills last year.



But for smaller companies, like Rogue Disposal and Recycling, which serves much of Oregon, the Chinese ban has upended operations. Rogue sent all its recycling to landfills for the first few months of the year, said Garry Penning, a spokesman.




scrap material為廢料之意,而scrap一字也有廢料的意思,指的是生產過程中遺留下來可用於再加工的材料,它的價格可能相當昂貴,如廢五金(scrap metal)與廢鋼鐵(scrap of iron and steel)等等,而waste(廢棄物)的定義則非常廣泛,包含有形(tangible)與無形(intangible)兩種形式,例如紙板(cupboard)與塑膠就是可回收的廢棄物。

至於垃圾一字,美式英文跟英式英文則有不同的說法,美國人常用trash或garbage來表達,英國人則是rubbish,而垃圾分類的英文則是separate the trash。此外,junk也有垃圾之意,如垃圾食物說成junk food。


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