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2020/01/10 第293期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份
紐時周報精選 Female Writers On the Rise in Italy 「斐蘭德效應」HBO製作影集 義大利女作家聲勢漲
Why the Star of a Big Hollywood Development Is the Sun 好萊塢新亮點 太陽能牆面大樓
Female Writers On the Rise in Italy 「斐蘭德效應」HBO製作影集 義大利女作家聲勢漲
文/Anna Momigliano

In Italy, literary fiction has long been considered a man’s game. Publishers, critics and prize committees have dismissed books by women as chick lit and beach reads. They scoffed at Elena Ferrante, the author of “My Brilliant Friend,” as the writer of mere page-turners.


Then Ferrante’s Neapolitan novels became an international sensation, selling over 11 million copies, inspiring an acclaimed HBO series and cementing her reputation as the most successful Italian novelist in years. Her ascent, and the rediscovery of some of the last century’s great Italian female writers, has encouraged a new wave of women and shaken the country’s literary establishment. Female writers here are winning prestigious prizes, getting translated and selling copies.


Their achievements have set off a wider debate in Italy about what constitutes literature in a country where self-referential virtuosity is often valued over storytelling, emotional resonance and issues like sexism or gender roles.


“Once we were more reluctant to write about certain topics, fearing they could be labeled as ‘women’s stuff,’” said Veronica Raimo, author of the novel “The Girl at the Door,” an exploration of marriage, pregnancy and sexual assault allegations that was translated into English last year. “There was this idea that stories told by women couldn’t be universal. But that’s changing.”


One author to see the progress firsthand is Helena Janeczek, who has been publishing for decades but who in 2018 became the first woman in 15 years to win the Premio Strega, the country’s top literary award.


“That was quite a time gap, wasn’t it?” she said. “But I wasn’t that surprised. The times are changing.”


The book that won her the award, published in October in English as “The Girl With the Leica,” is a historical novel about war photographer Gerda Taro, who was killed in 1937 while documenting the Spanish Civil War with her more famous boyfriend and colleague, Robert Capa.


In the past two years, novels by women have accounted for roughly half of Italy’s top 20 bestsellers in fiction — nearly double the percentage from 2017, according to data released by Informazioni Editoriali, which surveys sales in the country’s bookshops.

根據該國書店銷量調查業者Informazioni Editoriali公布的數據,過去兩年義大利前20名暢銷小說中,女性作品約占一半,占比相較於2017年增加了近一倍。

In interviews, Italian authors, editors, critics, translators and publishers said that female writers have gained extraordinary attention. Some call it “the Ferrante effect.”


“My Brilliant Friend” and the other Ferrante novels showed that “there is a market for fiction by women,” said Daniela Brogi, a contemporary literature scholar at the University for Foreigners of Siena. “And they also gave literary dignity to fiction about women.”



本文用銷售量和改編為影劇作品的盛況為「都會女性文學」(chick lit)平反,認為女性為女性閱讀所寫、主題關於女性的作品,不該被貶抑為「女人家的玩意」(women's stuff),同樣能夠放諸四海皆準(universal)。

導言後的第二段討論文學的定義。簡單說,「形式」跟「內容」孰輕孰重。小說家透過自我指涉(self -referential或自我反射"self-reflexive")的絕技(virtuosity)所打造出的後設小說(metafiction)世界,在義大利文壇備受推崇。義大利已故文壇巨擘卡爾維諾(Italo Calvino)的名作《如果在冬夜,一個旅人》(If on a Winter's Night a Traveler)即為顯例。

優良的文學作品理應形式與內容並重,作者認為義大利長期偏重敘事技巧,以致是否好好地說個故事(storytelling)、引發讀者共鳴(resonance)、和處理性別議題反而沒受到應有的重視。在女性作家紛紛崛起(on the rise)後,文學定義在義國文壇引發熱議,現狀正在改變。

Why the Star of a Big Hollywood Development Is the Sun 好萊塢新亮點 太陽能牆面大樓
文/Jill Cowan

At last count, there were 34 major construction projects in Hollywood, which Los Angeles officials are determined to turn into a high-density area.


But one new building stands out amid the glut, and not just because of its name — the Epic — or the company that will soon occupy all of its 13 floors: Netflix.


The just-completed Epic is the first office tower in LA to embed solar energy-generating panels (“building integrated photovoltaics”) into its facade, according to Hudson Pacific, which owns the property. Put simply, the structure will use its walls to capture and convert sunlight into electricity.


“Vertical panels are extremely uncommon and part of the reason is just physics — they’re less efficient than if you have them on the roof,” said Bernadette Del Chiaro, executive director of the California Solar and Storage Association, a trade group.

“So I’m not sure how much energy they will generate. But it’s still interesting.”


Del Chiaro described Los Angeles as “almost a clean-energy desert,” saying, “it’s the place with the most amount of energy need and the most sun and the least amount of this type of experimentation.”


The 310 panels, manufactured by Walters & Wolf and installed on the building’s east and west sides (the two with the greatest exposure), will supply 1.5% of the power that Netflix needs, according to Natalie Teear, Hudson Pacific’s vice president for sustainability and social impact.

哈德遜太平洋公司主管永續性及社會影響業務的副總裁娜塔莉.提爾指出,由Walters & Wolf製造、安裝在大樓東面和西面(陽光照射最多的兩邊)的310片面板,將供應Netflix所需電力的1.5%。

“It’s just a cool example of what’s possible,” Teear said.


Chris Barton, Hudson Pacific’s executive vice president for development and capital investments, declined to say how much the solar panels added to the cost of construction.


“There’s a premium to pay for them, certainly,” he said. “But we want to do what we can to establish a market for this technology.”


Netflix had no comment. A Hudson Pacific spokeswoman said the streaming giant would move into the building in the coming months.


The Epic has other unusual features — colossal outdoor work spaces with trees, fire pits and sofas, for instance — but Netflix’s primary Hollywood headquarters will remain across the street in a building (also owned by Hudson Pacific) that is known for its eye-popping lobby.



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